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Baking and Cooking Ingredient Substitution Chart

Ingredient Amount Substitutes
Almond paste 1 1/3 cups 1 3/4 cups ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups powdered sugar plus 1 egg white plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
Apple pie spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and either 1/8 teaspoon ground cardamom, ginger or cloves
Baking powder, double acting

Rule:  1 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour

 

1 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tarter

1/3 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk, buttermilk, or yogurt (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/2 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid amount called for in recipe by 1/2 cup)

1/4 teaspoon baking soda and 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid amount in recipe by 1 to 2 tablespoons)

1 1/2 teaspoons phosphate or tartate baking powder

1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder

Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)

Rule:  1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour

1 teaspoon You need to use 2 to 3 times more double-acting baking powder than baking soda. Replace acidic liquid ingredient in recipe with non-acidic liquid.

3/4 teaspoon Ammonium bicarbonate

 

Butter

Rule: Don’t use spreads or low-fat butter in baking

1 cup 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat (shortening) and 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

1 cup margarine

7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 teaspoon salt

7/8 cup oil

To reduce fat and calories – applesauce or prune puree for half of the butter in the recipe

Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup 1 cup milk plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup milk plus 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar

1 cup mild-flavored soy milk, plus 1 tablespoons vinegar (white or cider) or lemon juice (let stand 5 minutes before using)

1 cup plain or low fat yogurt

1 cup sour cream

1 cup water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder

 

Cajun Spice 1 tablespoon 1/2 teaspoon white pepper, 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder, 1/2 teaspoon onion powder, 1/2 teaspoon ground red pepper, 1/2 teaspoon paprika, and 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Cake Flour 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
Cardamon, ground 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon ground anise
Catsup 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/2 cup sugar, and 2 tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking)
Chervil, fresh 1 tablespoon chopped 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
Chicken stock base, instant 1 teaspoon 1 chicken bouillon cube
Chicken stock base, instant 1 tbsp dissolved in 1 cup water 1 cup canned chicken broth

1 cup homemade chicken broth or chicken stock

Chili sauce 1 cup 1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, dash of ground cloves, and dash of allspice
Chives, finely chopped 2 teaspoons 2 teaspoons finely chopped green onion tops
Chocolate chips, semi-sweet chips, melted 6-ounce package 2 squares unsweetened chocolate, 2 tablespoons shortening, and 1/2 cup sugar
Chocolate, semi-sweet 1 2/3 ounces 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate and 4 teaspoon sugar
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 square or 1 ounce 3 tablespoons cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine

3 tablespoon carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water

Chocolate, white 1 ounce 1 ounce milk chocolate

1 ounce sweet dark chocolate

Cocoa powder, natural unsweetened 3 tablespoons 1 ounce (square) chocolate (decrease fat called for in recipe by 1/2 tablespoon)

3 tablespoon Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar

3 tablespoons carob powder

Cocoa, Dutch Processed 3 tablespoons 3 tablespoons natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)

3 tablespoons carob powder

Coconut 1 tablespoon grated, dry 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh grated coconut
Coconut cream, canned 1 cup 1 cup heavy cream or whipping cream
Coconut milk, canned 1 cup 1 cup whole milk
Coffee, strong brewed 1/4 cup 2 tablespoons instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
Condensed cream of mushroom soup 1 (10.75-ounce can) 1 (10.75 ounce can) condensed cream of celery, cream of chicken, or golden mushroom soup.
Cornmeal, self-rising 1 cup 7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tablespoons baking powder, and 1/2 teaspoon salt
Cornmeal, stone ground 1 cup 1 cup regular milled cornmeal, corn grits, polenta, or maize meal
Corn syrup 1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe)

1 cup honey

1 cup light corn syrup

3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup molasses

1 cup maple-flavored syrup

Cottage cheese 1 cup 1 cup farmer’s cheese

1 cup ricotta cheese

Cream, heavy (36 to 40% fat) 1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

2/3 cup buttermilk plus 1/3 cup oil

1 cup evaporated skim milk

equal parts of part skim milk ricotta cheese and nonfat yogurt beaten until smooth (this mixture cannot be heated because of separation)

Cream, light (18 to 20% fat) 1 cup 3/4 cup milk and 3 tablespoons butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)

1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

Cream cheese 1 cup 1 cup pureed cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt, strained overnight in a cheesecloth

Currants 1 cup 1 cup raisins

1 cup chopped dates

1 cup other dried fruit (cranberries, blueberries, cherries)

Dill plant, fresh or dried 3 heads 1 tablespoons dill seed
Egg 1 whole (3 tablespoons or 1.7 ounce) 3 tablespoons and 1 teaspoon thawed frozen egg2 1/2 tablespoons sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tablespoons warm water

2 yolks and 1 tablespoon water (in cookies)

2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixtures)

1/2 teaspoon baking powder, 1 tablespoon vinegar, and 1 tablespoon liquid (in baking)

1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 tablespoon cornstarch in baking

Soften 1 tablespoon unflavored gelatin in 3 tablespoons cold water; add 3 teaspoons boiling water; cool and beat until frothy; add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 tablespoons)

1/4 cup commercial egg substitute

Egg white 1 white (2 tablespoons) 2 tablespoons thawed frozen egg white

2 teaspoons sifted, dry egg white powder plus 2 tablespoons lukewarm water

Egg yolk 1 yolk (1 1/2 tablespoons) 2 tablespoons sifted, dry egg yolk powder and 2 teaspoons water

1 1/3 tablespoons thawed frozen egg yolk

Extracts (such ash lemon or peppermint) 1 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon

1/4 teaspoon of oil of similar flavor

2 drops oil of similar flavor

Fish sauce 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce1 teaspoon light soy sauce with salt
Flour, all-purpose (for thickening) 1 tablespoon 1 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch

1 tablespoon granular tapioca

1 tablespoon waxy rice flour

1 tablespoon waxy corn flour

2 tablespoons browned flour

1 1/2 teaspoon whole wheat flour and 1/2 teaspoon all purpose flour

Flour, all-purpose

Note: Specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in a reduced volume and heavier product.

1 cup sifted 1 cup and 2 tablespoons cake flour

1 cup minus 2 tablespoons unsifted all-purpose flour

1 1/2 cup bread crumbs

1 cup rolled oats

1/3 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour

1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, rye flour or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour

3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

1 cup rye or rice flour

1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour

Flour, cake 1 cup sifted 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour
Flour, self-rising 1 cup 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour plus 1/1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt
Flour, whole wheat any amount Substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of the white flour called for in a recipe
Garlic 1 clove, small 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic

1/2 teaspoon granulated garlic

1/2 to 1 teaspoon garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe)

Garlic Salt 3/4 teaspoon 1 medium-size clove or 1/2 teaspoon minced fresh garlic
Gelatin, powdered (plain or unflavored) 1 envelope (1/4 ounce), 1 tablespoon granulated 2 teaspoons agar agar

4 sheets gelatin

Gelatin, leaf or sheet 4 leaves or sheets 1 (1/4 ounce) envelope powdered gelatin
Gelatin, flavored 3-ounce package 1 tablespoon plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice
Ghee 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon butter

1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Ginger root, fresh 1 teaspoon freshly grated 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped

Green onions, fresh 1/2 cup chopped 1/2 cup chopped onion

1/2 cup chopped leek

1/2 cup chopped shallots

Herbs, fresh 1 tablespoon finely cut 1 teaspoon dried ground herbs1 teaspoon dried crumbled herbs
Herring 8 ounces 8 ounces sardines
Honey 1 cup 1 1/4 cup granulated sugar and 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe)

1 cup light molasses, light or dark corn syrup, light treacle syrup, or maple syrup

Horseradish 1 tablespoon fresh 2 tablespoons bottled
Hot pepper sauce 1 teaspoon 3/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper plus 1 teaspoon vinegar
Italian Seasoning Combine 1 teaspoon basil, 1 tablespoon fresh or dried parsley, and 1/2 teaspoon oregano
Lemon juice, freshly squeezed 1 tablespoon juice 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice1 tablespoon fresh lime juice
Lemon grass Equal amount of grated lemon zest moistened with a bit of fresh lemon juice
Lime juice, freshly squeezed 1 tablespoon juice

 

1 tablespoon bottled lime juice

1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice

Lime zest (peel) 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon grated fresh lemon peel (zest)
Macaroni, (4 cups cooked) 2 cups uncooked 2 cups spaghetti, uncooked4 cups noodles, uncooked
Maple Syrup about 2 cups Combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 teaspoon maple flavoring

1 cup honey

Mascarpone cheese 1 cup 1 cup creme fraiche

1 cup sour cream

Milk, whole 1 cup 1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine

1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water

1/2 cup condensed milk plus 1/2 cup water

4 tablespoons whole dry milk and 1 cup water, or follow manufacturer’s directions

1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)

1/4 cup non-fat dry milk and 2 tsp butter or margarine and 7/8 cup water

1 cup soy or almond milk

1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking

1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder in recipe by 2 tsp)

Mushrooms, fresh 1 pound 3 ounces dried mushrooms plus 1 1/2 cups water

1 (10-ounce) can

Mustard, dry 1 teaspoon 1 tablespoon prepared mustard

1/2 teaspoon mustard seeds

Mustard, Dijon 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon dry mustard mixed with 1 teaspoon water, 1 teaspoon white wine vinegar, 1 tablespoon mayonnaise, and a pinch of sugar
Nuts, chopped, ground or whole 1 cup 1 cup similar nuts (your favorite) prepared in the same way1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products)
Oil (for sauteing) 1/4 cup 1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening, or lard
Onion, fresh 1 small rehydrate 1 tbsp instant minced onion
Onion 1 small 1/4 cup chopped, fresh green onions

1 1/3 teaspoons onion salt

1 to 2 tablespoons instant minced onion

1 teaspoon onion powder

2 tablespoons dried minced onion

Orange juice, freshly squeezed 1 cup 1 cup reconstituted frozen orange concentrate

1 cup other citrus juice (of your choice)

Parmesan cheese, grated 1/2 cup 1/2 cup grated Asiago cheese or grated Romano cheese
Parsley, fresh 1 teaspoon chopped 1 teaspoon dried parsley

1 tablespoon chopped fresh chervil

Peanut Butter 1 cup 1 cup of another nut butter (such as almond or hazelnut butter)

1 cup tahini (sesame paste)

Pepper, white 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon black pepper
Peppers, green bell 1 tablespoon dried 3 tablespoons fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, red bell 1 tablespoon dried 3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped

2 tablespoons chopped pimento

Peppermint, dried 1 tablespoon 1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Pimento 2 tablespoons, chopped rehydrate 1 tablespoon dried red bell peppers

3 tablespoons fresh red bell pepper, chopped

Pumpkin pie spice 1 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
Raisins 1 cup 1 cup dried currants

1 cup dried blueberries, cranberries, or cherries

1 cup other dried fruit (chopped into small pieces)

Ricotta cheese 1 cup 1 cup cottage cheese
Saffron equal amount of Turmeric
Sour cream, cultured 1 cup 3/4 cup sour milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

3/4 cup buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese

1 cup plain yogurt

3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine

Sugar, white 1 cup 1 1/3 cup molasses (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/3 cup)

1 cup caster (superfine) sugar

1 cup powdered (confectioners’) sugar

1 cup brown sugar (light or dark), firmly packed

1 cup honey (decrease liquid called for in recipe by 1/4 cup)

 

Tapioca, quick-cooking for thickening 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon of flour
Tomato Sauce 2 cups 3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water
Vanilla bean 1/2 bean 1 tablespoon pure vanilla extract
Vinegar, regular (white or cider) 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon lemon or lime juice
Worcestershire sauce 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon bottled steak sauce
Yogurt, plain 1 cup 1 cup buttermilk

1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth

1 cup sour cream

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